Wednesday, March 31, 2021

A Few 19C Girls of Spring by American Clement Rollins Grant 1849–1893

Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) A Seat in the Garden

Clement Rollins Grant was born in Freeport, Maine in 1848. In 1866, he sailed for Europe, spending time in Great Britain & France.
Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) Gathering Flowers

Upon his return, Grant worked in Portland, Maine, before establishing a studio in Boston by 1882. He was a member of the Boston Art Club, where his works were exhibited between 1877 & 1905.
Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) Young Woman in Profile

Grant painted in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Great Britain, & France. By 1887, he had relocated to New York City, where he produced reproductive etchings of well-known paintings. Grant exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1878 and at the National Academy of Design in 1882, 1887-89, 1891-92, and 1894 (posthumously).
Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) Repose

Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) Woman in the Landscape

Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) The Visit

Clement Rollins Grant (American artist, 1849–1893) Ethel of Cambridge

Monday, March 29, 2021

19C American Women - by James Frothingham 1786-1864

James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Lucia Pickering

James Frothingham was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, and began as a chaise painter in his father's chaise manufactory. In the Boston area, he studied portraitature under Gilbert Stuart, who said of one of Frothingham's head portraits, "No man in Boston but myself can paint so good a head."  Initially the older painter had advised Frothingham to adopt another, less precarious means of earning a livelihood.
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Nancy Leeds Thayer
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Ann Trusell
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Mary Robbins 1821
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Elizabeth Brooks
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Catharine Littlefield Greene Miller
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Ann Hale (Mrs Francis Grant)
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Mary White (Mrs Nathaniel West II)
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) (Mrs William Ware) Mary Waterhouse
James Frothingham (American artist, 1786–1864) Harriet Martineau 1835

Thursday, March 25, 2021

From the 19C Newspapers - Milking Stool

Mr. Arthur Antle presented his wife with a new 3-legged milk stool on the occasion of their wedding anniversary last week.

-from The Indian Republican, Tulsa, Indian Territory (IT), 1900

From Tweets Of Old


Tuesday, March 23, 2021

19C American Women by William Jennys 1774-1858

William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858), Unknown Woman

William Jennys, an itinerant portraitist, was painting in the vicinity of New Milford, Connecticut in the mid-1790s, & then in New York City. After 1800, he was traveling from the Connecticut River Valley into Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, & even ventured into the southern states.
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Young Lady. 1800-1802

William Matthew Jennys was born in Boston, Massachusettes, the son of itinerant portrait painter Richard Jennys & his wife Sarah Ireland. The elder Jennys painted & taught painting in Charleston & Savannah, before returning to Connecticut in 1791, to paint with his son William & to open another painting school. The younger Jennys trained with his father; & initially, they traveled together seeking commissions. William's style was more realistic than his father's. The younger Jennys could portray the personalities of his subjects but had a little difficulty with arms & hands.
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Woman with a Fan.

Although William first advertised alone in the Norwich, Connecticut Packet in 1792-3, it took him about 10 years to become financially secure enought to settle in one place for a while. During that time, he worked in Milford, Connecticut, & was listed in the New York City directories as a portraitist in 1797-98. In 1804, he finally settled in Newburyport, Massachusetts, where, during the next 5 years he had the most productive period of his career, completing 35 portraits. He lived there, except for a year, when he traveled to the Bahamas after the death of his father. When he returned to the United States, he worked as a comb maker in New York City. After 1817, he moved to Littleton, New Hampshire, with his wife, where he lived until his death in 1859.
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Portrait of a Woman
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Mrs. Chandler of Vermont. 1800-1802
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Mrs. Asa Benjamin. 1795
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Joanna Hoyt. 1802
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Elizabeth Stone Coffin
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Woman Wearing High Waist Bow and Bonnet with Matching Bow
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858). Mrs. Cooke.
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858), Brown-Haired Young Woman
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858), Peggy Ashley of Westfield, Massachusetts
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858) Brown-Haired Woman with Book
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858) Mary Grove (Mrs. Cephas Smith Jr & Child)
William Jennys (American artist, 1774-1858) Woman with a Fan.

Sunday, March 21, 2021

19C American Women by John S. Blunt 1798–1835 The Borden Limner

John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Lady with a Gold Comb

John S. Blunt was was born in the Portsmouth, New Hampshire area. Many of John S. Blunt's family were seafaring people. His father was a ship captain, as were other members of his family. Blunt did come to paint Atlantic maritime scenes, but they were not his most popular works. It is reported, that he trained as a young man at the Boston workshop of John Ritto Penniman (American craftsman & artist, 1782-1841), learning the craft of painting signs, fire buckets, militia standards, & other forms of ornamental painting. In 1819, Blunt traveled with portrait artist William P. Codman up the Merrimack River as far as Concord, NH, seeking commissions for portraits, landscapes, & fancy paintings.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Joann Edson Borden (1811-1849)

For over a century, the work Blunt did was not attributed to him. He was coined the “Borden Limner” after portraits in New Bedford, MA, of Captain Borden & his wife. The Borden Limner was later identified as John S Blunt using the artist’s ledgers & comparing entries to known portraits.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Portrait of a Young Woman

Primarily Blount painted portraits of fashionably dressed & elegantly coifed ladies with elaborate period hairdos. Some wear stylish lace caps or gold & tortoiseshell combs. Most of his female sitters wear brooches, necklaces, earrings, & rings. Through his ads, which appeared between 1819-1828 in the New Hampshire Patriot & New Hampshire Gazette, he sought commissions for portraits; advertised an exhibition of his paintings; & sought young lady “scholars” for his drawing & painting school. His surviving detailed ledger indicates that he was frequently hired by Masonic groups, for whom he made aprons, sashes, & military standards.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Lady in a Black Dress

Blunt married Esther Peake Colby (1801-1872) in Boston in 1821; and in 1825, he opened an art instruction school in Portsmouth. John S. Blunt moved to Boston in 1831, opening a studio at 54 Cornhill, while living on Castle Street. He would only live in Boston 3 years.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Portrait of a Lady

Blunt advertised that he could paint oil portraits on canvas; work on glass, paint signs; do ornamental enameling, gilding, & bronzing; and make military standards. Blunt seemed most comfortable using oils on small canvases. Occasionally, he also painted on wood panels. As a portrait painter, he obviously believed in black, red, & the puffiest of sleeves.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Miss Frances A Motley

John S. Blunt died aboard the ship Ohio on a voyage from New Orleans to Boston in 1835, at the age of 37.
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) The Willard Family
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Mrs Miller of Newton, New Jersey c 1830
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Portrait of Rebecca Brownell
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Portrait of a Young Lady
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Lady on a Red Sofa 1833
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Lady Wearin a Green Dress with Jewelry
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Portrait of a Lady
John S. Blunt (American artist, 1798–1835) Possibly Martha Coggswell (Mrs Fraklin Colburn)

Friday, March 19, 2021

From the 19C Newspapers - The Hired Girl

.Don’t light the fire with kerosene. Let the hired girl do it. She hasn’t any wife and children; you have.
–from The Climax, Richmond, Kentucky, February 19, 1890

From Tweets Of Old

Wednesday, March 17, 2021

19C American Women and Labor Day

Norman Rockwell, Rosie the Riviter 1943

The United States Department of Labor tell us that Labor Day, the first Monday in September, is a creation of the labor movement and is dedicated to the social and economic achievements of American workers. It constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of our country.
Founder of Labor Day

More than 100 years after the first Labor Day observance, there is still some doubt as to who first proposed the holiday for workers.

Some records show that Peter J. McGuire, general secretary of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners and a cofounder of the American Federation of Labor, was first in suggesting a day to honor those "who from rude nature have delved and carved all the grandeur we behold."

But Peter McGuire's place in Labor Day history has not gone unchallenged. Many believe that Matthew Maguire, a machinist, not Peter McGuire, founded the holiday. Recent research seems to support the contention that Matthew Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344 of the International Association of Machinists in Paterson, N.J., proposed the holiday in 1882 while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union in New York. What is clear is that the Central Labor Union adopted a Labor Day proposal and appointed a committee to plan a demonstration and picnic.
The Moss Industry in the South, Harper's Weekly, September 2, 1882

The First Labor Day

The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.

In 1884 the first Monday in September was selected as the holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow the example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's holiday" on that date. The idea spread with the growth of labor organizations, and in 1885 Labor Day was celebrated in many industrial centers of the country.
Working Women's Protective Union Hearing Complaint Against Sewing Machine Dealer

Labor Day Legislation

Through the years the nation gave increasing emphasis to Labor Day. The first governmental recognition came through municipal ordinances passed during 1885 and 1886. From them developed the movement to secure state legislation. The first state bill was introduced into the New York legislature, but the first to become law was passed by Oregon on February 21, 1887. During the year four more states — Colorado, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York — created the Labor Day holiday by legislative enactment. By the end of the decade Connecticut, Nebraska, and Pennsylvania had followed suit. By 1894, 23 other states had adopted the holiday in honor of workers, and on June 28 of that year, Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday in the District of Columbia and the territories.
A Nationwide Holiday

The form that the observance and celebration of Labor Day should take were outlined in the first proposal of the holiday — a street parade to exhibit to the public "the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations" of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day. Speeches by prominent men and women were introduced later, as more emphasis was placed upon the economic and civic significance of the holiday. Still later, by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of 1909, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.
Maryland - The Labor Troubles In The Cumberland District - Scenes At and About the Eckhart Mines Detail, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 10, 1882

Labor Day was important for women who took part in parades and celebrations. It honored women laborers during World War II, who took the place of men in the American workforce, as they were deployed around the world. World War II's Rosie the Riveter was a real woman, Rose Will Monroe, who was born in Pulaski County, Kentucky in 1920, and moved to Michigan during World War II. She worked as a riveter at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory in Ypsilanti, Michigan, building B-29 and B-24 bombers for the U.S. Army Air Forces.
The character of the Labor Day celebration has undergone a change in recent years, especially in large industrial centers where mass displays and huge parades have proved a problem. This change, however, is more a shift in emphasis and medium of expression. Today Labor Day addresses by leading union officials, industrialists, educators, clerics and government officials are given wide coverage in newspapers, radio, and television.
Pennsylvania - The Carpet-Weaver's Strike in Philadelphia - Female Strikers Patrolling the Streets, Frank Leslie's Illustrated News, November 3, 1888

The vital force of labor added materially to the highest standard of living and the greatest production the world has ever known and has brought us closer to the realization of our traditional ideals of economic and political democracy. It is appropriate, therefore, that the nation pay tribute on Labor Day to the creator of so much of the nation's strength, freedom, and leadership — the American worker.
Labor Day Parade, float of Women's Trade Union League, New York

Women Organizing in the 19th Century compiled by the I Am Woman blog.

1824 Women workers strike for the first time in history at Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 102 women workers strike in support of brother weavers protesting the simultaneous reduction in wages and extension of the workday.

1825 'The United Tailoresses of New York' is formed. It is the first union for women only.
Labor Day

1831 In February of this year, almost 1600 women, all members of the United Tailoresses of New York, strike for "a just price for our labor."

1845 The 'Female Labor Reform Association' is formed in Lowell, Massachusetts by Sarah Bagley and other women cotton mill workers to reduce the work day from 12 or 13 hours a day to 10, and to improve sanitation and safety in the mills where they worked.
Detroit, Michigan. Women workers parading in the Labor Day parade photo by Arthur S. Siegel, September 1942 Photos from Farm Security Administration, Office of War Information Collection, Library of Congress

1853 Antoinette Brown becomes the first U.S. woman to be ordained as a Protestant minister.

1867 Cigar makers are the first national union to accept women and African Americans.

1869 In July, women shoemakers form the 'Daughters of St. Crispin', the first national union of women workers, at Lynn, Massachusetts.
World War II Rosies

1872 Congress passes a law giving women federal employee equal pay for equal work.

1881 In Atlanta, Georgia almost 3,000 black women laundry workers stage one of the largest and most effective strikes in the history of the south.
Detroit, Michigan. Float in the Labor Day parade showing relationship between the Army, Red Cross and industrial workers photo by Arthur S. Siegel, September 1942 Photos from Farm Security Administration, Office of War Information Collection, Library of Congress

1888 Suffragists win passage of a law requiring women doctors for women patients in mental institutions.

1889 Jane Adams founds Hull House in Chicago to assist the poor. It becomes a model for many other settlement houses and establishes social work as a profession for women.
Rosies World War II
1892 Mary Kenney O'Sullivan of the Bindery Workers is appointed the AFL's first female national organizer.

1898 Charlotte Perkins Gillman wrote 'Women and Economics' which argues that women need to be economically independent.

1899 The National Consumers League is formed with Florence Kelley as its president. The League organizes women to use their power as consumers to push for better working conditions and protective law for women workers.